Noun(1) a member of a 19th-century revolutionary nationalist organization among the Irish in the US and Ireland. The Fenians staged an unsuccessful revolt in Ireland in 1867 and were responsible for isolated revolutionary acts against the British until the early 20th century, when they were gradually eclipsed by the IRA.(2) (chiefly in Northern Ireland) a derogatory term for a Catholic or Irish nationalist.
(1) By then, Irish Fenians had already succeeded in exploding two bombs in the London Tube where, said The Times, ├ö├ç├┐the new underground tunnels offered vast possibilities of destruction├ö├ç├û.(2) They were also consistent in their defence of the Irish Fenians in their struggle against British rule.(3) Fresh perspectives on familiar topics - Fenianism , the land war, and de Valera and women - also emerge from three articles distinguished by the quality and scope of their archival research.(4) The number of political street ballads that were written and sold in Dublin about the Manchester martyrs and the Invincible society also indicates that Fenianism did indeed penetrate the popular culture of working-class Dublin.(5) The Fenians would respond with moral outrage if their request was denied, and make more converts with the argument that the Catholic Irish were being victimized by discrimination yet again.(6) Within this political struggle for the allegiance of the Montreal Irish community, a clandestine group of Fenians there continued their preparations for invasion and revolution.(7) She is a Protestant gentlewoman and a Fenian , more renowned for her high society literary salon than her Republican poetry.(8) The American Fenians then organized an abortive attack upon Canada, a rather devious way of liberating Ireland.(9) However, the Fenian movement and particularly their successors the Irish Republican Brothers were of more consequence.(10) Opposed to both the ethnographic stereotypes voiced by Haines and the militant Fenianism of the Citizen, the narrative perspective seems to concur with Bloom's more prosaic idea of a nation as ├ö├ç├┐the same people living in the same place├ö├ç├û.(11) The Pope had condemned the Fenians in 1870 but after 1883 the Catholic clergy and hierarchy in Ireland were won over to the movement.(12) In the mid-century, the Irish Republican Brotherhood and the Fenians began a genuinely separatist movement, whose support in Irish elections was rarely measured.(13) Parnell's IRB allies proved invaluable in this area, especially as numbers of Fenians based in Ireland's rural districts and small towns had been active in land agitation for some time.(14) Another problem faced by the Fenians was that the Roman Catholic Church was generally not supportive of them.(15) Within this bustling, energetic, heterogeneous Montreal Irish culture the Fenians were a minority group.(16) A fundamental product of Fenianism 's post-1867 reorganization was the acknowledgement that it would support all movements which strove for even partial Irish independence so long as they did not compromise the IRB itself.
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